Car enthusiast, choosing any brand of car, first of all estimates its functional characteristics and opportunities, components and assemblies design, engine size and other options. But initially he must decide which drive layout to choose? The following types of drive layouts include: 1. Rear wheel drive (classic); 2. Front wheel drive; 3. All wheel drive
Rear wheel drive
For a vehicle that works on the principle of rear-wheel drive, the transmission transmits torque to the rear axle. Its components include the engine, transmission, driveshaft and rear axle. If vividly present the principle of operation of these types of vehicles, you get the following: transmission => torque => rotation of the rear axle. This class is considered as a classic car that prevails among all the others. This is because it was the first to go in mass production.
- Uniform load on the axis of the vehicle, in percentage terms, this distribution is approximately 50/50. This is due to the fact that when you press the gas when the car starts to move, there is a distribution of the weight of the car on his back, thereby relieving the front. With this operation, the entire weight of the car is distributed evenly, quickly typed acceleration, engine thrust is increased, but often with a sharp gas the rear wheels skid. Accordingly ups are overcome easily.
- Easy to avoid skid. Normally, this class of vehicle when driving at low speeds, especially on the corners, often oversteer. On the one hand it is dangerous on the other hand to eliminate drift, it is necessary only to release the accelerator pedal. Dropping the gas pedal in case of force majeure, almost always takes place automatically, on intuitive level. If there are certain skills in driving, the drift can be controlled by continuously pressing the gas pedal and steering in the direction of the skid. Naturally, this action is recommended to experienced drivers.
- The steering wheel is not subjected to vibrations. These fluctuations may come from front wheel drive cars, but since it is a rear axle, these vibrations are not transmitted, sitting inside the car, the vibration is not evident.
- The controlled (front) wheels, paving the way leading. Driving wheels are the rear, respectively, for driving on the loose, difficult or snow-covered roads, increasing cross-car as the front wheels when driving as it lay rear.
- Less turning angle. That is, the front wheels only run the rear wheels pushing, respectively, the turning radius is reduced, so this class cars is easier to enter the turns, if road conditions allow.
- Driveshafts are decreasing the power of the car, as well as when driving on broken roads increases the possibility of damage it and noticeable additional noise.
- Complicated design. This type of car requires the installation of additional components (at factory level), which complicates the design and increases car weight. These factors lead to an increase in the cost of the car and the cost of subsequent repair;
- Less room on the interior. The design of the car is positioned so that the center of the cabin there is a tunnel for driveshaft that reduces the interior space.
- Problematic handling on the ice. Usually by the onset of winter, there are frequent accidents because of slippery roads. To a large extent exposed to motor vehicle accidents, which established the summer or all-season tires, especially the rear-wheel drive cars. Because it’s difficult to control on slippery roads, increasing tenfold the likelihood of skidding.
The history of these types of vehicles starting from 1929, when the US engineer Carl Van Ranstr, designed the car with front-wheel drive named Cord L-29. Although its specifications were a little worse than other cars, the demand for it was high. Then, after the global crisis, the production of these vehicles was closed. But since 60-70s, production resumed and transferred into mass production. The principle structure of this type of vehicle is the engine, gearbox connected to the engine, further to the front wheels mounted two constant velocity joints, through which the torque is transmitted to the driving axle.
- Spacious interior. Saloon of a car is a bit more spacious, because the absence of the driveshaft, eliminating the need to create a tunnel in the center of the frame structure of cars. Although actually, many vehicles have a tunnel, which serves as a reinforcement of the frame and the installation of various mechanisms.
- Much lower cost than other types of vehicles. This is due to the fact that their production is less labor-intensive, due to the design principle based on minimalism and simplicity, and consequently, less expensive;
- Simplicity and minimalism. The design of the front drive units, designed in such a way that the need to install any additional components disappears, thereby increasing reliability, because the construction is more simple.
The work of the whole design of the car, is more efficient than rear-wheel drive vehicle, in particular the efficiency of the motor car with front wheel drive significantly higher;
- The higher stability. Greater stability on the road, since the front drive wheels dragging all mechanisms with itself;
- Effective braking. Since the overall weight falls on the front of the vehicle, respectively, braking is performed more reliably.
- There is a strong impact on the steering, as the front axle is a driving and steering. However, modern cars, this disadvantage is offset by power steering (WTP);
- Slippage. With respect to jump-start the car, the front wheels begin to slip normally, as they increase the burden, thereby reducing the thrust of the engine;
- A large turning radius. Turning radius is reduced, since the front wheels have two functions – driving and steering.
What is all-wheel drive? Under the four-wheel drive vehicle imply such with gear design, when torque is transmitted to all four wheels, with some models it is possible to regulate the operation of the drive, it is possible to leave the only rear-wheel drive or front-wheel or tap once all four wheels. Off-road vehicles and wagons are usually available with all-wheel drive. But its offer on the market of cars is much lower than other types of cars. They cost more because of their complex structure, respectively, repair components and assemblies.
- Very high off-road abilities on any difficult sections of road, even on slippery roads;
- Excellent handling of a car;
- Since all 4 wheel drive, fuel consumption is correspondingly greater;
- Costly to repair components and assemblies because of the complex design of the car;
- The cost of these cars is much higher other types of cars;