Hybrid engine – is a system of electric and gasoline engines. During operation, both gasoline and electric, could work together or separately. This process controls the powerful computer that choose what engine or its combination has to work at the moment. Thus, when you travel on the highway gasoline engine starts as the battery at this regime will not last long. If the hybrid vehicle is moving in the city, there is an electric motor running, and on the uphill, or under heavy load gasoline engine helps electric one. While a gasoline engine operating, the battery is slowly charging. Such power unit even with the priority use of the gas engine reduces harmful emissions into the atmosphere up to 90%, as well as significantly reduce the consumption of gasoline during city driving. This determines the main advantages of hybrid engine cars over conventional ones. On the highway only the gasoline engine is working, so it is not possible to save fuel.
The serial type hybrid car
In this scheme, the car runs on an electric motor. ICE is connected to a generator which feeds the electric motor and feeds the battery.
A hybrid car with a consistent scheme of the power plant (Plug-in Hybrid), usually manufactured with the ability to connect to an electrical outlet after complete the trip. This function involves the use of batteries with more energy, it reduces the use of the internal combustion engine and thus reduces the amount of harmful emissions. Plug-in Hybrid representatives are Chevrolet Volt, Opel Ampera. They also called electric vehicles with greater range (Extended Range Electric Vehicle, EREV). These cars are able to travel up to 37 miles (60 km) using the energy accumulators and up to 310 miles (500 km) using energy generator which activated by engine.
The parallel scheme hybrid car
Parallel scheme connection of the electric motor and the internal combustion engine provide together or separate work of both engines. This is due to the connection of ICE, an electric motor and transmission with automatically controlled clutches.
Hybrid cars that run on such a scheme are called Mild Hybrid.
Such a car with a hybrid engine uses a small electric power unit producing about 20 kW, which adds extra power during acceleration of the car.
In most of the designs electric motor is positioned between the engine and the gearbox, and it also performs the task of a starter and generator. Some of the famous hybrid cars with a parallel circuit are Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid, BMW Active Hybrid 7, Volkswagen Touareg Hybrid. The initiator of this area is the Honda’s Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system. The work process of IMA system can be divided into the following modes: operation of the electric motor; the overall operation of the internal combustion engine and an electric motor; Internal combustion engine operation directly to the battery charging electric motor acting as a generator; recharge the battery during regenerative braking.
A serial-parallel hybrid scheme
Serial-parallel circuit is the scheme when electric motor and combustion engine are connected by planetary gear. This simultaneously transmits power to each of the motors to the driving wheels in a ratio of from 0 to 100% of the normal power.
The difference from the parallel circuit and serial-parallel is on the last one there is a generator that generates energy for operation of the motor.
Hybrids with a series-parallel circuit, called Full Hybrid.
Known full hybrid vehicles are the Toyota Prius, Lexus RX 450h, Ford Escape Hybrid. In this part of the market of hybrids, Toyota has the lead system called Hybrid Synergy Drive, HSD. The power plant system HSD appears as follows: DIC associated with the planetary gear carrier; an electric motor connected to the ring gear of the planetary gear; the sun gear of the planetary gear coupled with the generator. The internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle, which performs low power performance at low engine speeds, thereby obtaining great fuel economy and fewer harmful emissions.