Electronic System Types on Modern Cars


This article focuses on the electronic components of cars, what they are and how they work.


ABS – Anti-lock braking system. This system prevents the wheels from locking under heavy braking or when braking on a slippery road. The control unit repeatedly presses and releases the brake pads, causing the wheels start turning. ABS consists of acceleration sensors (speed) mounted on the wheel hubs; control valves are installed in the main line of the braking system; the control unit receives signals from the sensors and controlling operation of the valves.

During ABS braking constantly and accurately determines the speed of all wheels. If one or more wheels slow down faster than the maximum speed of the calculated braking of the car and on the basis of the accelerometers, the ABS modulator commands in the braking system, limiting the braking force to the wheel(s). Braking force after the rotation of the wheel comes to the permitted limit is restored.

electronic systems of modern cars


4WS – 4 wheels steering. Special steering mechanisms are built into the rear axle by means of which the wheel could turn. Control is a special electronic control unit on the basis of data on speed, steering angle and wheel, etc., received from vehicle sensors. System operation is carried out in two modes: At low speeds the rear wheels are turned in the opposite direction from the front wheels, and when maneuvering wheel rotates at a smaller angle. That is, increasing the sensitivity of the steering and the car becomes more agile. At high speed, or when you rebuild a fast bend rear wheels turn in the same direction only at a small angle as the front wheels.

electronic systems of modern cars


ACC – active cruise control. This system uses a three-beam radar to monitor the road ahead of the car. If the vehicle in goes to your lane, the ACC determines its direction and position, and also calculates the approximate speed on the basis of the radar signal. The system changes the vehicle’s speed to maintain a safe distance between vehicles. Reducing the speed is done by reducing the traction of the car or using the brakes. The value of the safety distance can be adjusted by settings.

electronic systems of modern cars


ASC – Traction control or anti-slip control. Also known as ASR, ASC + T, TCS, ETC, TRC, TRACS, STC. The main task that performs a system – is to ensure the stability of the car when driving uphill or jump-start on a slippery surface. To ensure stability can be due to redistribution of the torque at the wheels which reportedly have better adhesion to the road, and if this is not enough, then the reduced supply of fuel mixture to the engine, thereby reducing the incoming power to the wheels. The system is designed to work at speeds below 25 mph (40 km/h).


BA (brake assist) – electronic control of the hydraulic pressure in the brake system. Also called PABS, PA, BAS. BA alone increases the pressure in the brake system when sudden braking or a lack of effort on the pedal.
And the pressure increase is much faster than a person could do. Recognition of emergency braking takes place on the pedal velocity and pressure on the pedal.


DBC – Dynamic Brake Control. DBC is a complement to DSC (dynamic stability control). Approximately 90% of the drivers are not able to perform an emergency braking in time. Despite the sharp pressure on the brake pedal, the pressure on the pedal and the subsequent lack of an increase in pressure increases the braking power is negligible. As a result, the braking power is not fully used. DBS system to accelerate the growth and increase brake pressure during emergency braking and ensures minimum braking distances, even with a mild brake pedal. Determines the amount of data are: the rate of pressure rise and the force applied to the pedal. DBS system does not work on the vacuum principle and the principle of hydraulic amplification. During emergency braking, such a system provides the best and most accurate dosage of braking force.



EBD – electronic brake force distribution.  It works in conjunction with ABS and electronically provides uniform distribution between each wheel braking force. This is necessary for optimal traction of each wheel and the road on the basis of speed, vehicle load, the nature of the coating, etc.
In most cases, used to avoid the possibility of locking the wheels on the rear axle. EBD starts before ABS, or after the last failure as a result of breakage.


ECT (electronically controled transmission) – Electronic Shift Control automatic transmission in the last generation. Given the throttle position, vehicle speed, engine temperature, determines which gear is engaged. Thereby providing the most soft gear switch and increases the lifespan of the engine and transmission. It is possible to install an shift algorithm, like “winter”, “economy”, “sport”.

electronic systems of modern cars

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